Additional Resources

FPIC Resources

Amazon Watch – Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC): The Right to Decide (2011)
This briefing discusses the role of companies, investors and finance institutions in identifying and addressing the adverse human rights impacts of company operations on Indigenous Peoples.

Free, Prior, and Informed Consent in REDD+: Principles and Approaches for Policy and Project Development (2011)
This guide by RECOFTC – The Centre for People and Forests provides an extensive overview of the importance of FPIC and FPIC processes.

Guide to Free, Prior and Informed Consent (2019)
Published by Oxfam Australia, this guide provides a highly accessible introduction to FPIC designed to assist organizations that are supporting communities affected by large-scale development projects.

United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues
The Forum is an advisory body to the Economic and Social Council, with a mandate to discuss indigenous issues related to economic and social development, culture, the environment, education, health and human rights.

Oil and Gas Projects in the Western Amazon: Threats to Wilderness, Biodiversity, and Indigenous Peoples (2008)
This research article by M. Finer et al. provides detailed insight into the environmental and social threats posed by oil and gas projects in the Amazon rainforest, focusing on FPIC, Indigenous Peoples in Voluntary Isolation and Strategic Environmental Assessments.

Stakeholder Engagement Handbook, IFC  (2007)
Practical advice from IFC on how to document stakeholder engagement.

Respecting FPIC, UN FAO (2014)
Advice on documenting how community representatives share information with wider community.

Indigenous Peoples and Mining, ICMMStakeholder Engagement Handbook, IFC (2015)
Advice on gender and social baseline studies.

Making FPIC Work, Forest Peoples Programme (2007)
Theory on why it is important to review representatives for accountability and inclusiveness.

Engaging with FPIC, BSR (2012)
Theory on legitimacy of representatives.

A Business’s Reference Guide: UN DRIP, UN Global Compact (2013)
Recommends using external experts to understand indigenous forms of ownership and decision-making.

Community Consent Index, Oxfam (2015)
Comparison of publicly available company policies on Indigenous Peoples and FPIC.

Community Protocol Tool Box and Project Report (2017)
Identify good practices for the development and utilization of community protocols as an instrument to better enable communities to proactively and constructively engage with extractive industries to safeguard their rights and uphold others’ responsibilities.

FPIC Solutions Dialogue (2021)
New guide supporting the rights of Indigenous peoples in natural resources development.

Voluntary standards and FPIC Insights for Improving Implementation, ISEAL Alliance (2020)
This is a research report published by ISEAL and authored by Dr Emma Wilson. The report was developed as part of a collaboration between ISEAL and GIZ to support the work of sustainability standards in the metals, mining and minerals sector.


The FPIC-360° tool and resources are accessible on the Resource Hub for Assuring Indigenous Peoples Rights (CEFO Indigena). This includes FPIC resources, interactive materials, and FAQs.

The Hub is an ongoing collaborative project founded in 2019 by Equitable Origin and The Coordinator of Indigenous Organizations of the Amazon Basin (COICA.)

Community Representation

Making FPIC Work, Forest Peoples Program (2007)
This resource discusses the theory on why it is important to review representatives for accountability and inclusiveness.

Stakeholder Engagement Handbook, International Finance Corporation (2007)

This handbook endeavors to provide a comprehensive overview of good practice in stakeholder engagement, with a dedicated focus on stakeholder groups that are “external” to the core operation of the business, such as affected communities, local government authorities, non-governmental and other civil society organizations, local institutions and other interested or affected parties.

Making FPIC Work for Forests and Peoples, The Forests Dialogue (2010)

Guidance Note 7 Indigenous Peoples, International Finance Corporation (2012)
Emphasizes the necessity of a free and open stakeholder engagement process and “good faith negotiation”.

Engaging with FPIC, BSR (2012)

Guidelines for Applying FPIC, Conservation International (2013)

Respecting FPIC, UN FAO (2014)
Advice on documenting how community representatives share information with the wider community.

Policy on Promoting the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (PRO-IP) (2020)
Guidance for engagement and partnership with Indigenous Peoples to align USAID programs with communities’ priorities, while safeguarding against adverse impacts.


Gender Inclusivity (2021)
FPIC Solutions Dialogue presents best practices for gender inclusivity in FPIC.


Natural Resources

Negotiations and Agreements

Agreements and Community Outcomes (2021, The Dialogue)

Negotiations in the Indigenous World: Aboriginal Peoples and the Extractive Industry in Australia and Canada (2015)

Why Agreements Matter (2016)
“How to guide” outlining key elements of agreements, good practices for inclusive engagement in agreement-making, and practical guidance for planning for successful implementation and monitoring.